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COP27 Climate Summit: What to Watch



CNN

As world leaders gather in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, for the United Nations’ annual climate summit, researchers, advocates, and the United Nations itself are determined to halt global warming and prevent the worst consequences of climate change. It warns that the world is still significantly off track from the goal of preventing. climate crisis.

Over the next two weeks, negotiators from nearly 200 countries will encourage each other to raise their clean energy ambitions at COP27. Since the industrial revolution, the average global temperature has already increased by 1.2 degrees Celsius.

They will discuss ending the use of coal, the dirtiest fossil fuel that has seen a resurgence in some countries during the war in Ukraine, as the world’s poorest countries recover from a devastating climate. try to come up with a system that funnels funds to help you do that. disaster.

However, recent reports of flooding have made it clear that time is running out for the massive energy overhaul needed to keep temperatures from rising above 1.5 degrees Celsius.

Carbon and methane emissions will reach record levels in 2021, according to a United Nations and World Weather Association report, and plans submitted by countries to reduce these emissions are not inadequate. Given countries’ current commitments, global temperatures will rise to between 2.1 and 2.9 degrees Celsius by 2100.

Ultimately, the world will need to cut fossil fuel emissions by almost half by 2030 to avoid 1.5 degrees. This is a bleak outlook for an economy that remains heavily dependent on oil, natural gas and coal.

US Special Envoy for Climate John Kerry told reporters in October that “no country has the right to stay behind.” “Scientists tell us what is happening right now – increasing heat extremes, extreme weather, fires, floods, warming oceans, melting ice, and life being severely impacted by the climate. The amazing way in which we are facing a crisis – unless we deal with this crisis in a unified and positive way, things will get worse.”

Below are the key issues to watch at COP27 in Egypt.

Developing and developed countries have been fighting for years over the concept of a “loss and damage” fund. An idea that suggests that the countries that do the most harm with their exorbitant global warming emissions should pay the poor countries that suffer climate disasters as a result.

This was a thorny issue because the wealthiest nations, including the United States, do not want to harm or hold other nations accountable. , quipped about the issue, but gave no indication as to what solution the country would sign.

Meanwhile, small island nations and the rest of the Southern Hemisphere bear the consequences of the climate crisis as devastating floods, intensifying storms and record heatwaves wreak havoc.

This summer’s deadly floods in Pakistan, which killed more than 1,500 people, will be an example that negotiators around the world will point to. And since September, more than 2 million people in Nigeria have been hit by the worst floods in his decade. At this very moment, Nigerians are drinking, cooking and bathing in filthy floodwaters amid serious concern over water-borne diseases.

The official agenda for this year’s COP27 is likely to see loss and damage. But beyond those countries that have pledged to meet and discuss what a potential loss and damage fund might look like, or whether it should even exist, what action will take place at this year’s summit? is unknown.

“Do you expect to have the funds raised by the end of the two weeks? I hope so, but we will see how the parties make that happen.

Former White House National Climate Advisor Gina McCarthy told CNN that she believes loss and damage will be the biggest issue at this year’s UN climate summit, and countries, including the United States, have already been hit hard. He said he would face some tough questions about his plans to help developing countries. by climate disasters.

“It keeps pushing out,” McCarthy said. “We need real accountability and short-term concrete commitments.”

The President of the People's Republic of China, Xi Jinping, left the event, and the US President's Special Envoy for Climate Affairs, John Kerry, attended.

One year after the two countries stunned the world by announcing they would work together on climate change, people will be watching to see if the United States and China can mend their broken ties at the summit.

Newfound cooperation collapsed this summer when China announced it would suspend climate talks with the United States as part of a broad retaliation for House Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s visit to Taiwan.

Kelly recently said climate talks between the two countries are still on hold and will likely remain so until Chinese President Xi Jinping gives the go-ahead. Kelly and others are watching closely to see if China will deliver on last year’s pledge to submit plans to cut methane emissions, or renew its emissions pledges.

Cooperation between the United States and China is important, especially as they are the world’s two largest emitters and could spur action on other countries as well.

Apart from the potential loss and damage fund, there is the overarching issue of the so-called global climate finance. Rich countries that have pledged to put money into helping developing countries transition to clean energy instead of growing their economies on fossil fuels.

A pledge made in 2009 was $100 billion a year, but the world has yet to deliver on that pledge. Some of the richest countries such as the US, UK and Canada consistently fall short of their quotas.

President Joe Biden has pledged the US to contribute $11 billion by 2024. But Biden’s demands are ultimately subject to congressional approval, and if Republicans win control of Congress in the midterm elections, they probably won’t go over well.

The US is working on another deal with countries such as Vietnam, South Africa and Indonesia to move away from coal and towards renewable energy. U.S. officials also often stress that they also want to unlock private investment to help countries transition to renewable energy and address climate impacts.

A ship carrying coal outside a coal-fired power plant in Hanchuan, Hubei province, China, November 2021.

COP27 aims to set nations on fire toward fossil fuel emissions and spark renewed ambition for the climate crisis. But reports say we are still on track to keep global warming below 1.5 degrees Celsius.

A United Nations report examining countries’ latest pledges found that the temperature of the planet will be between 2.1 and 2.9 degrees Celsius. The average global temperature has already increased by about 1.2 degrees since the industrial revolution.

According to the World Meteorological Organization, records were set last year for all three major greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide.

According to a recent International Energy Agency report, the adoption of renewable energy and electric vehicles is soaring, offsetting rising fossil fuel emissions.

But the big picture in the report shows that more clean energy needs to be deployed quickly. Inger Andersen, Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme, says a single degree increase in global temperatures will have serious consequences.

“The energy transition is perfectly doable, but we’re not on that path and we’ve been procrastinating and wasting time,” Andersen told CNN. “Every digit counts. Don’t say, ‘I missed 1.5, let’s settle for 2.'” No, we need to understand that with each digit that goes up, our lives, and the lives of our children and grandchildren, will be impacted more.

Clocks keep time in a different way. Next year’s COP28 in Dubai will be the year countries need to take a formal inventory to determine if the world is on track to meet the goals set out in the landmark Paris Agreement. will be

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